Wednesday, 24 July 2024, 6:36 AM
Site: The TEFL Academy e-Learning
Course: The TEFL Academy e-Learning (e-learning)
Glossary: TEFL Glossary
C

correction code

It is the use of symbols when correcting students' written work to indicate what type of mistake they have made.
E.g., T indicates using the wrong tense.

correction spot

It is a point in the lesson, usually after a fluency activity, where the teacher goes over errors students have made during the activity.

CPE

'Certificate of Proficiency in English' is a Cambridge English examination for students at C2 level. It is often referred to as 'the Proficiency.'

cultural knowledge

It is the knowledge about a culture. Cultural knowledge can contribute to linguistic understanding. For example, knowledge of the style and political position of a newspaper can help a reader know what to expect from a given newspaper article.

D

decode

In reading, decoding is the process of applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships and strings of letters to pronounce and thereby recognise written words, i.e., converting the symbols on a page or screen into meaningful words.

In listening, the decoding process includes recognising sounds, where words begin and end, sentence stress and chunks of language.


decoding

In reading, decoding is the process of applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships and strings of letters to pronounce and thereby recognise written words, i.e., converting the symbols on a page or screen into meaningful words.

In listening, the decoding process includes recognising sounds, where words begin and end, sentence stress and chunks of language.

deductive appproach

You may also see the term deductive presentation. This is a 'Rules → Language' way of teaching new grammar. The teacher explains the rules for how a new piece of language is used. Students then go on to apply the rules in controlled practice exercises.

This is generally regarded as less effective than inductive presentation for most learners, but can be useful for revision of the language that students have already learned.

delayed correction

It means correcting students after they have completed an activity rather than while they are doing it. If an activity is accuracy focused, correction is usually immediate, whereas if it is fluency focused, correction is delayed.

demonstrative

This, that, these and those are a class of determiners which indicates proximity in space or time to the speaker (or writer). This and these refer to things that are close to the speaker while that and those refer to things further away.

E.g., No one cares these days.

They didn't have computers in those days.

When this, that, these and those are used before a noun (this hat, that house), they are usually referred to just as demonstratives. You may also see the the term demonstrative adjective - it is the same thing.

These words can also be used as pronouns; this group is known as demonstrative pronouns.

I don't like these.

Pass me that.

Can I borrow this?

Those are nice.

In these examples the words act as subjects or objects, so they are pronouns.

dependent clause

See subordinating clause.