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This is a teaching approach particularly associated with Scott Thornbury and Luke Meddings. Dogme rejects course books and grammar-based teaching. The focus is on 'emergent' language. Lessons are based around the language that the students produce.


Drilling is when students repeat a word or phrase modelled by the teacher to practise pronunciation or help memorise structure.

dynamic verb

See stative verb.



To give students prompts to encourage them to produce the target language, or answer questions about grammar rules. This keeps students more involved and active than just telling them everything.


See elicit.


See elicit.


When a sound disappears in connected speech, it is elided. For example, in 'mustn't,' the first t is always elided, and the second one usually is unless it is followed by a vowel.


See elide.


A distinction is drawn between errors and mistakes. An error is when learners get language wrong because they don't know the correct form.

For example, a low-level learner might say 'If my mother didn't go to Spain, she not met my father.' because they have not yet learned the 3rd Conditional form (If my mother hadn't gone to Spain, she wouldn't have met my father). 
This student would not be able to produce the correct form even if they were told their sentence was wrong.

A student who has learned the form might still make a mistake with it, but does have the knowledge to self-correct, e.g., 'If my mother hadn't go to Spain, she wouldn't have meet my father.' In this case the teacher could isolate the mistakes and elicit the correct forms from the student.

Mistakes are sometimes also referred to as slips.

Mistakes and slips may also just be the kind of spoken and written mistakes native speakers make when tired or speaking quickly. 

exophoric reference

It is a reference to something outside the text or context that the audience (listener or reader) will understand because they have shared knowledge.

e.g. The Prime Minister. Providing the audience understands the country of reference, they will know which Prime Minister the indicates.
Or 'She's late again.' both speaker and listener know who 'she' is.

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