TEFL Glossary

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choral drilling

Drilling is when students repeat a word or phrase modelled by the teacher to practise pronunciation or help memorise structure. Choral drilling is the whole class or a group repeating together (in chorus).

chunks of language

A large proportion of the language we produce seems to be memorised 'chunks of language', rather than original creations generated through combining our grammatical and lexical knowledge. Examples are the _____er, the _________er (as in the bigger, the better), you must be joking, to cut a long story short.

See the Lexical Approach.

classroom contract

An agreement, negotiated with students, on how students should behave.


See Content and Language Integrated Learning.


See Community Language Learning.

closed pairs

This is when all the students in a class  work in pairs at the same time (compare with open pairs).

closed question

A question which can be answered just with 'yes' or 'no'. To encourage speaking in language lessons, it is better to use open questions.


See Communicative Language Teaching.


Cognates  are words from different languages which have the same origin. (So we recognise them!)


A coherent text is one in which the ideas are logically linked to form a unified whole. See also cohesion, cohesive devices.

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