TEFL Glossary

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Certificate of Advanced English - a Cambridge English examination for students at C1 level.


Computer Assisted Language Learning

caregiver speech

Caregiver speech is the simple language used to address young children. It is also referred to as child-directed speech, and it is sometimes called 'motherese.'

cataphoric reference

When a word in a text refers to another one which occurs later in the text. E.g., Because he was feeling unwell, James decided to go back to bed. Here he refers forward to James.

See also anaphoric reference and exophoric reference.


Competency-Based Language Teaching. In this approach, learning goals are defined 'in terms of precise measurable descriptions of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors students should possess at the end of a course of study.' (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.141).


See concept checking.


Common European Framework of Reference. System used for describing a learner's ability in a second or foreign language.

Certificate of Advanced English

See CAE.


Certificate of Proficiency in English

See CPE.

child-directed speech

See caregiver speech.

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