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In reading, decoding is the process of applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships and strings of letters to pronounce and thereby recognise written words, i.e., converting the symbols on a page or screen into meaningful words.
In listening, the decoding process includes recognising sounds, where words begin and end, sentence stress and chunks of language.
You may also see the term deductive presentation. This is a 'Rules → Language' way of teaching new grammar. The teacher explains the rules for how a new piece of language is used. Students then go on to apply the rules in controlled practice exercises.
This is generally regarded as less effective than inductive
presentation for most learners, but can be useful for revision of the language that students have already learned.
It means correcting students after they have completed an activity rather than while they are doing it. If an activity is accuracy focused, correction is usually immediate, whereas if it is fluency focused, correction is delayed.
This, that, these and those are a class of determiners which indicates proximity in space or time to the speaker (or writer). This and these refer to things that are close to the speaker while that and those refer to things further away.
E.g., No one cares these days.
They didn't have computers in those days.
When this, that, these and those are used before a noun (this hat, that house), they are usually referred to just as demonstratives. You may also see the the term demonstrative adjective - it is the same thing.
These words can also be used as pronouns; this group is known as demonstrative pronouns.
I don't like these.
Pass me that.
Can I borrow this?
Those are nice.
In these examples the words act as subjects or objects, so they are pronouns.
See subordinating clause.
There are five categories of determiners:
A diagnostic test is a test designed to identify problems that learners have with the language.
A dictogloss is a kind of dictation activity
where learners reconstruct a text rather than writing it down exactly word for word. The teacher reads the text in short chunks as in a normal dictation, but at a speed too fast for learners to write it down exactly. Instead, they note down key words and then work in groups using their notes to rebuild the original. They then compare their text with the original one. It is a good way for identifying learners' errors and the acceptable different ways of expressing the same idea.