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To give students prompts to encourage them to produce the target language, or answer questions about grammar rules. This keeps students more involved and active than just telling them everything.
When a sound disappears in connected speech, it is elided. For example, in 'mustn't,' the first t is always elided, and the second one usually is unless it is followed by a vowel.
It is a reference to something outside the text or context that the audience (listener or reader) will understand because they have shared knowledge.
e.g. The Prime Minister. Providing the audience understands the country of reference, they will know which Prime Minister the indicates.
When we are talking about language functions such as promising, inviting, giving advice, etc, exponents are the actual pieces of language used to express that function.
For the function of asking for permission, some exponents are:
Is it Ok if...
Would you mind if...
I wondered if I could...
Motivation is what prompts a learner to learn a language (or other subject or skill). Extrinsic means 'outside,' so if the learner sees learning the language as a tool to achieving something else they want, e.g., parental approval, promotion at work, passing an exam to get into university, then the learner has extrinsic motivation.
Compare with intrinsic motivation.