TEFL Glossary

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name chain

It is a name-learning game which requires students to repeat everyone's name around the class (see Unit 9 for detail).


A nasal is a sound which is produced by releasing most of the air through the nose (/m/, /n/ and /ŋ/).

Natural Approach

Similar to CLT, Tracey D. Terrell's Natural Approach (1970s) is based on Stephen Krashen's theories of second language acquisition (L2A). Krashen argues that there is a natural process by which we acquire second languages. All that is needed is adequate exposure to 'comprehensible input' in stress-free situations, and the L2 will be acquired in much the same way as children learn their first language. Krashen draws a distinction between conscious learning and subconscious acquisition.

Natural method

See the Direct Method.

NB: this is different from the Natural Approach!

non-interactive listening

See interactive listening.


A noun is a word which refers to a thing. This could be a physical object, such as wall or daisy - these are concrete nouns, or a word that refers to an abstract idea, such as peace, love and understanding (abstract nouns).

noun phrase

A noun phrase is a single noun or a group of words including a noun which function in a sentence as the subject, object, or prepositional object.


The children, the dog and the cat are playing in the garden. (subject)

I am watching the children, the dog and the cat. (object)

Look at the children, the dog and the cat!  (prepositional object)