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A method of language teaching developed in USA in the first half of the 20th Century. See Unit 8 for detail.
Annoying and pretentious term used in language teaching. It just means real objects.
See four skills.
See productive vocabulary.
When 'where, when and why' are used to link clauses, they are classed as relative adverbs.
E.g., This is the house where I was born.
It was beautiful early spring when we met.
I don't really know why I said that.
A subordinate clause that describes a noun. Defining relative clauses specify who or what is referred to.
Examples: That's the man who was rude to my mother.
This is the dress which I bought yesterday.
John's the bloke that she used to be married to.
It was the squirrel they had seen on the roof.
Non-defining relative clauses are enclosed by commas and just give additional information.
Examples: The children, who were really enjoying themselves, didn't want to leave the party.
The question of Brexit, which no one seemed able to solve, was in the news again.
Non-defining relative clauses always require a relative pronoun.
That, which, who, whom and whose are considered relative pronouns when they are used to introduce a relative clause.
That's the man who was rude to my mother.
Can anyone tell me whose coat this is?
She turned off the news, which was depressing.
If a relative pronoun in a defining relative clause refers to the object of the main clause, it can be omitted:
John's the bloke (that/who) she used to be married to.
It was the squirrel (that/which) they had seen on the roof.
This is the dress (that/which) I bought yesterday.
In testing, reliability means that a test effectively measures what it is intended to measure.