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When we are talking about language functions such as promising, inviting, giving advice, etc, exponents are the actual pieces of language used to express that function.

For the function of asking for permission, some exponents are:

May I...

Can I...

Could I...

Is it Ok if...

Would you mind if...

I wondered if I could...


See intensive.

extensive listening

See intensive.

extensive reading

See extensive.

extrinsic motivation

Motivation is what prompts a learner to learn a language (or other subject or skill). Extrinsic means 'outside,' so if the learner sees learning the language as a tool to achieving something else they want, e.g., parental approval, promotion at work, passing an exam to get into university, then the learner has extrinsic motivation. 

Compare with intrinsic motivation.


false friends

These are cognates whose meaning has diverged, so they no longer mean the same thing. Learners often assume that a word in L2 which looks and sounds similar to one in their L1 would have the same meaning.


First Certificate in English - a Cambridge English examination for students at B2 level.


General term for giving a response or assessment. After a small group discussion, students might 'give feedback' to the whole class, which would be a short report on what they have said.

After students have done a task, the teacher may 'give feedback' - comments and corrections.

At the end of a course, students are often asked to 'give feedback,' which means a judgement on the classes they have had.

final stage

The final stage of a lesson is sometimes called the plenary. Its purpose is to bring together and summarise what has been done in that day's lesson. 

find someone who

A 'find someone who' is an activity which involves students milling round the class speaking to everyone.  They need to complete a worksheet that requires them to 'find someone who' fits a series of statements, such as 'Find someone who....likes eating fish/...comes to school on the bus/...wears jeans every day, etc.

This is often used as a 'getting-to-know-you' activity, but it is also very useful as a way of practising specific language items.

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